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Cervical Cancer – See 45 Frequently Asked Questions

Cervical Cancer – See 45 Frequently Asked Questions

This is a type of cancer that occurs in the cells of the cervix — the narrow part of the lower uterus that connects to the vagina. It’s often referred to as the neck of the womb or the entrance of the womb.

Causes of Cervical Cancer

It begins when healthy cells in the cervix of a woman develop mutations in their DNA. A cell’s DNA contains the instructions that tell a cell what to do.

Healthy cells grow and multiply at a set and regular rate, eventually dying at a set time too. In the case of mutations, the cells grow and multiply out of control, and they do not die. The accumulating abnormal cells form a mass or tumor. Cancer cells invade nearby tissues and can break off from a tumor to spread or metastasize elsewhere in the body.

Causes of Cervical Cancer are not clear yet, but Human Papillomavirus (HPV) certainly plays a role. HPV is very common, and most people with the virus never develop cancer. Other factors, however — such as your environment or your lifestyle choices — also determine whether you’ll develop cervical cancer or not.

When exposed to HPV, the body’s immune system typically prevents the virus from doing any harm and it eventually leaves the body, but in a small percentage of people, the virus survives for years, contributing to the process that causes some cervical cells to become cancer cells.

You can reduce your risk of developing cervical cancer by having screening tests and receiving a vaccine that protects against HPV infection.

 

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Risk factors for cervical cancer include:

  • Too many sexual partners. Having too many sexual partners is a sure way to contract HPV. Statistics show that one in every ten persons have HPV.
  • Early sexual activity.
  • A weakened immune system: The risk of cervical cancer is higher in those with HIV or AIDS, and people who have undergone a transplant, leading to the use of immunosuppressive medications.
  • Birth control pills: Long-term use of some common contraceptive pills slightly raises a woman’s risk of coming down with Cervical Cancer.
  • Socio-economic status: Rates appear to be higher in areas where income is low. This explains why more people die of cancer-related ailments in Africa than anywhere in the world.
  • Exposure to miscarriage prevention drugs while in-vitro.

Symptoms of Cervical Cancer

Cervical Cancer – See 45 Frequently Asked Questions

Early-stage cervical cancer generally produces no signs or symptoms. Symptoms begin to appear as the cancer advances.

Most common symptoms are:

  • Bleeding between periods
  • Also, bleeding after sexual intercourse
  • Bleeding in post-menopausal women
  • Pain during sexual intercourse
  • Vaginal discharge with a strong odor
  • Also, vaginal discharge tinged with blood
  • Pelvic pain

 

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These symptoms can have other causes, including infections. If you experience any of these symptoms, you should see a doctor.

Prevention

Cervical Cancer – See 45 Frequently Asked Questions

To reduce your risk of cervical cancer:

  • Find out from your Doctor if the HPV vaccine is appropriate for you and get vaccinated.
  • Have routine Pap tests. A Pap test is preventive. It aims not to detect cancer but to reveal any cell changes that indicate the possible development of cancer so that a person can take early action to treat it.
  • 21 – 65 years – A Pap test every 3 years
  • 30 – 65 years – Women who want to lengthen the screening interval should take a combination of Pap test and HPV test every 5 years.
  • Practice safe sex. Limit the number of your sexual partners. Stick to one partner.
  • Don’t smoke. Smoking increases the risks of having Cervical Cancer.

Treatment

Cervical Cancer – See 45 Frequently Asked Questions

Cervical cancer treatment options include surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or combinations of these.

Deciding on the kind of treatment depends on several factors, such as the stage of cancer, age, and the overall state of health.

Let us know your thought on Causes and Treatment of Cervical Cancer – See Frequently Asked Questions.

 

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Cervical Cancer – See 45 Frequently Asked Questions

  1. Does chemo cure cervical cancer?

Chemo may be used to treat cervical cancer that has spread to other organs and tissues (advanced cervical cancer). It can also be helpful when cervical cancer comes back after treatment with chemoradiation (recurrent cervical cancer).

 

  1. Is stage 3 cervical cancer terminal?

Approximately 60% of patients with stage III cervical cancer survived 5 years from treatment with radiation therapy alone. … Patients with stage III or IVA cervical cancer experienced a 5-year survival rate of 63% compared to 57% for patients treated with radiation therapy alone.

Stages

  1. Do you need chemo for Stage 1 cervical cancer?

Stage 1 means that the cancer is only in the neck of the womb (cervix). The main treatment is surgery. You might also have combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy (chemoradiotherapy) if you have stage 1B cervical cancer.

 

  1. Is Stage 0 cervical cancer really cancer?

Cervical carcinoma in situ is also referred to as stage 0 cervical cancer. It’s noninvasive, which means the cancerous cells are confined to the surface of your cervix and haven’t penetrated more deeply into the tissues. The cervix is the narrow, lower part of the uterus

 

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  1. What surgery is done for cervical cancer?

Your doctor uses a surgical or laser knife to remove a cone-shaped piece of tissue from your cervix. He may also use a thin wire heated by electricity. This is called the loop electrosurgical excision procedure, or LEEP.

 

  1. What happens if I have cervical cancer?

Cervical cancer happens when cells change in a woman’s cervix, which connects her uterus with her vagina. This cancer can affect the deeper tissues of her cervix and may spread to other parts of her body (metastasize), often the lungs, liver, bladder, vagina, and rectum.

What happens

  1. Will hysterectomy cure cervical cancer?

Who needs a radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer treatment? A radical hysterectomy is the standard treatment for early-stage cervical cancer. That includes stage I cervical cancer, and more specifically, stage IA2 and IB1. … Surgery is not the standard of care for advanced-stage cervical cancer patients.

 

  1. Do you need chemo for cervical cancer?

For cervical cancer, doctors often give chemo with radiation, called chemoradiation. Adding chemo makes the radiation work better. You might also get chemotherapy if your cancer has spread.

 

  1. What does Stage 1 cervical cancer mean?

Stage 1 means that the cancer is only in the neck of the womb (cervix). The main treatment is surgery. You might also have combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy (chemoradiotherapy) if you have stage 1B cervical cancer.

 

  1. Is Stage 1 cervical cancer curable?

Stage I cervical cancer is curable for the majority of patients if surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy are appropriately used.

 

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  1. What percentage of cervical cancer patients die?

For all women with cervical cancer, five-year survival is 66 percent (SEER). Also, for white women, five-year survival is 69 percent (ACS). For black women, five-year survival is 56 percent (ACS). In early, localized cervical cancer, five-year survival is 92 percent (SEER)

 

  1. How do they remove cervical cancer?

Your doctor uses a surgical or laser knife to remove a cone-shaped piece of tissue from your cervix. He may also use a thin wire heated by electricity. This is called the loop electrosurgical excision procedure, or LEEP

 

  1. What is Stage 3 of cervical cancer?

Stage III cervical cancer means that cancer has spread to the lower part of the vagina or the walls of the pelvis, but not to distant sites. … Cancer may be blocking the ureters (tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder). It may have spread to the lymph nodes.

 

  1. How long is Chemo for cervical cancer?

You generally receive chemotherapy every 3 to 4 weeks. But some medicines are given at different intervals. Your doctor will review the schedule with you based on the medicines used in your treatment. You may also receive radiation therapy at the same time as chemotherapy.

 

  1. What is the best treatment for cervical cancer?

Treatment of stage IB and stage IIA cervical cancer may include the following:

  • Radiation therapy with chemotherapy given at the same time.
  • Radical hysterectomy and removal of pelvic lymph nodes with or without radiation therapy to the pelvis, plus chemotherapy.
  • Also, Radical trachelectomy.
  • Chemotherapy followed by surgery.

 

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  1. Is cervical cancer curable at Stage 3?

Approximately 60% of patients with stage III cervical cancer survived 5 years from treatment with radiation therapy alone. … Patients with stage III or IVA cervical cancer experienced a 5-year survival rate of 63% compared to 57% for patients treated with radiation therapy alone.

 

  1. How long does it take for HPV to turn into cervical cancer?

Yet some people stay infected for many years. If you don’t treat an HPV infection, it can cause cells inside your cervix to turn into cancer. It can often take between 10 and 30 years from the time you’re infected until a tumor forms.

 

  1. What is the life expectancy of someone with cervical cancer?

The chances of living for at least five years after being diagnosed with cervical cancer are: stage 1 – 80-99% stage 2 – 60-90% stage 3 – 30-50%

 

  1. How quickly does cervical cancer spread?

In fact, once cells in the cervix begin to undergo abnormal changes, it can take several years for the cells to grow into invasive cervical cancer. Many women experience precancerous changes in the cervix in their 20s and 30s, though the average woman with cervical cancer is diagnosed in her 50s.

 

  1. What are the 4 stages of cervical cancer?

Doctors use the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging system for cervical cancer. There are 4 stages, numbered 1 to 4. Stage 4 means cancer has spread to parts of the body outside the cervix and womb. It can be divided into stage 4A and stage 4B.

 

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  1. Where would cervical cancer spread to first?

Cervical cancers don’t always spread, but those that do most often spread to the regional lymph nodes, the lungs, the liver, the bladder, the vagina, and/or the rectum.

Spread

  1. Can you beat stage 4 cervical cancer?

Patients with stage III or IVA cervical cancer experienced a 5-year survival rate of 63% compared to 57% for patients treated with radiation therapy alone. … Other patients with stage IV disease already have small amounts of cancer that have spread outside the cervix and were not treated by chemotherapy.

 

  1. Is bloating a sign of cervical cancer?

Bloating

Persistently feeling bloated and full is one of the most common early signs of ovarian cancer. And bloating accompanied by abdominal distension (visible swelling in your stomach) could be a red flag that there is a problem.

 

  1. What is bleeding like with cervical cancer?

Irregular vaginal bleeding is the most common symptom of invasive cervical cancer. … Sometimes, it shows as blood-streaked vaginal discharge, which often gets dismissed as spotting. Vaginal bleeding can also occur in postmenopausal women, who no longer have menstrual periods.

 

  1. What stage of cervical cancer do symptoms show?

Early-stage cervical cancer generally produces no signs or symptoms. Signs and symptoms of more-advanced cervical cancer include Vaginal bleeding after intercourse, between periods or after menopause. Watery, bloody vaginal discharge that may be heavy and have a foul odor

 

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  1. Do Pap smears detect ovarian cancer?

During a pelvic exam, the health care professional feels the ovaries and uterus for size, shape, and consistency. … The Pap test is effective in the early detection of cervical cancer, but it isn’t a test for ovarian cancer. Rarely, ovarian cancers are found through Pap tests, but usually, they are at an advanced stage.

 

  1. Can a doctor tell if you have cervical cancer by looking at it?

Some cervical cancer may be found during a pelvic exam. Your provider can‘t see precancer changes such as dysplasia. But the provider may see some invasive cancer during an exam. If something suspicious is seen during the pelvic exam, more tests will be needed.

 

  1. Can you see cervical cancer?

Some cervical cancer may be found during a pelvic exam. Your provider can‘t see precancer changes such as dysplasia. But the provider may see some invasive cancer during an exam. If something suspicious is seen during the pelvic exam, more tests will be needed.

 

  1. Is there pain with cervical cancer?

Many women describe pelvic pain as a dull ache that may include sharp pains as well. Pain may be intermittent or constant and is typically worse during or after intercourse. Abnormal vaginal discharge is another possible sign of cervical cancer.

 

  1. How do they test for cervical cancer?

The most common screening test to detect cervical cancer or precancerous cells (dysplasia) is the Pap test. During a Pap test, the doctor takes a sample of cells from the surface of the cervix inside the vagina, and then sends the sample to be reviewed by pathologists in a lab at DF/BWCC.

 

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  1. How can I get cervical cancer?

Cervical cancer causes and risk factors include:

  1. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.
  2. Having many sexual partners.
  3. Smoking.
  4. Birth control pills (oral contraceptives) used over the long term.
  5. Engaging in early sexual contact.

 

  1. Can I be cured of cervical cancer?

Cervical cancer is often curable if it’s diagnosed at an early stage. When cervical cancer is not curable, it’s often possible to slow its progression, prolong lifespan and relieve any associated symptoms, such as pain and vaginal bleeding

 

  1. How do you feel when you have cervical cancer?

Early warning signs of cervical cancer

When present, common symptoms of a tumor that develops in the cervix may include vaginal bleeding, including bleeding between periods, after sexual intercourse or post-menopausal bleeding; unusual vaginal discharge, which may be watery, pink or foul-smelling; and pelvic pain.

 

  1. What are the main causes of cervical cancer?

Cervical cancer is a type of cancer that occurs in the cells of the cervix — the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina. Various strains of the human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection, play a role in causing most cervical cancer.

 

  1. What causes cervical cancer in a woman?

Cervical cancer happens when cells change in a woman’s cervix, which connects her uterus with her vagina. … Most cases of cervical cancer are caused by infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), which is preventable with a vaccine

 

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  1. Is cervical cancer sexually transmitted?

HPV is mainly transmitted through sexual contact and most people are infected with HPV shortly after the onset of sexual activity. Cervical cancer is caused by sexually acquired infection with certain types of HPV. Two HPV types (16 and 18) cause 70% of cervical cancers and pre-cancerous cervical lesions.

 

  1. Can cervical cancer develop in 3 years?

Pre-cancerous cervical abnormalities

Cancer of the cervix usually takes many years to develop. Before it does, the cells in the cervix often show changes. … The progression from HPV infection to developing CIN or CGIN and then cervical cancer is very slow, often taking 10 to 20 years.

 

  1. Do Pap smears always detect cervical cancer?

Pap test. Unlike other gynecologic cancers, cervical cancer can be detected through various screening tests. The most common screening test to detect cervical cancer or precancerous cells (dysplasia) is the Pap test. … Then, a brush is inserted into the vagina to collect cells from the cervix.

 

  1. Can you have cervical cancer without bleeding?

Cancer of the cervix often has no symptoms in its early stages. If you do have symptoms, the most common is abnormal vaginal bleeding, which can occur during or after sex, in between periods, or new bleeding after you have been through the menopause.

 

  1. Does cervical cancer spread fast?

Cervical cancer develops when cells in the cervix begin to grow out of control. These cells can also invade nearby tissues or spread throughout the body. … Usually, cervical cancer is very slow-growing, although in certain circumstances it can grow and spread quickly.

 

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  1. How long can you have cervical cancer without knowing?

Most women with HPV won’t get cervical cancer. The virus often resolves on its own in two years or less without any treatments. However, some people may continue to be infected long after exposure. HPV and early cervical cancer don’t always cause symptoms

 

  1. Who is at risk for cervical cancer?

Age. People younger than 20 years old rarely develop cervical cancer. The risk goes up between the late teens and mid-30s. Women past this age group remain at risk and need to have regular cervical cancer screenings, which include a Pap test and/or an HPV test.

 

  1. What is the most common age for cervical cancer?

It can also find cervical cancer early − when it’s small and easier to cure.) But it has not changed much over the last 10 years. Cervical cancer is most frequently diagnosed in women between the ages of 35 and 44 with the average age at diagnosis being 50. It rarely develops in women younger than 20

 

  1. Is cervical cancer deadly?

Cervical cancer is cancer of the cervix. The cervix is the lower, narrow opening of the uterus. … If these changes are found and treated, cervical cancer can be prevented. Also, If not diagnosed and treated, cervical cancer can spread to other parts of the body and become deadly.

 

  1. What are the early signs of cervical cancer?

Cervical Cancer: Symptoms and Signs

  • Blood spots or light bleeding between or following periods.
  • Menstrual bleeding is longer and heavier than usual.
  • Bleeding after intercourse, douching, or a pelvic examination.
  • Increased vaginal discharge.
  • Pain during sexual intercourse.
  • Bleeding after menopause.
  • Unexplained, persistent pelvic, and/or back pain.

 

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